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  • INTRODUCTION.

Urban heat island UHI manifests as the temperature rise in built-up urban areas relative to the surrounding rural countryside, largely because of the relatively greater proportion of incident solar energy that is absorbed and stored by man-made materials. The direct impact of UHI can be significant on both daytime and night-time temperatures, and the indirect impacts include increased air conditioning loads, deteriorated air and water quality, reduced pavement lifetimes, and exacerbated heat waves.

Modifying the thermal properties and emissivity of roofs and paved surfaces and increasing the vegetated area within the city are potential mitigation strategies.

A quantitative comparison of their efficacies and costs suggests that so-called cool roofs are likely the most cost-effective UHI mitigation strategy. However, additional research is needed on how to modify surface emissivities and dynamically control surface and material properties, as well as on the health and socioeconomic impacts of UHI.

Human interactions with wildlife are a defining experience of human existence.

What would a heat-proof city look like? | Cities | The Guardian

These interactions can be positive or negative. People compete with wildlife for food and resources, and have eradicated dangerous species; co-opted and domesticated valuable Read More. Figure 1: Growth in scientific papers referencing human—wildlife conflict between and as measured by red citations that use the exact words human—wildlife conflict or human wildlife confli Figure 2: A model for conceptualizing different types of human—wildlife conflict.

The x-axis represents a range of interactions or outcomes from negative e. Figure 3: Summary of selected common approaches used to mitigate human—wildlife conflict and promote human—wildlife coexistence organized by broad categories of intervention 8, 24, 26, , Agricultural production, including indirect emissions associated with land-cover Figure 1: Partitioning of production-based food chain greenhouse gas emissions, excluding land-use change, for China and United Kingdom.

The estimated megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent for Figure 2: Regional differences in the composition of emissions from direct and indirect emissions from agricultural production for the year in megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent.

Urban Heat Island Effect {‘अर्बन हीट आइलैंड’प्रभाव } RAS Mains 2018

No indirect Figure 3: Regional differences in estimated direct greenhouse gas GHG emissions from agricultural production black and indirect GHG emissions from agriculture-driven land-use change gray for the Figure 4: Examples of actions in food systems that achieve different synergies and trade-offs for adaptation, mitigation, and food security near-term food availability. Actions must be situated in b This review examines the relationships between politics, sustainability, and development.

Learn About Heat Islands

Where development is densest, the land surface temperature is near 30 degrees Celsius 86 degrees Fahrenheit. Scientists suspect that the urban heat island effect may be one of the factors behind several studies showing that cities influence rainfall in their surrounding area. The heating of the surface and the overlying air creates instability in the atmosphere that encourages air to rise. As it rises, it cools, and water vapor condenses into rain that falls downwind of the city.

Southeast have shown that rainfall downwind of major urban areas can be as much as 20 percent greater than it is upwind areas. To learn more about how the urban heat island and other city traits such as pollution and topography may be influencing rainfall, please read the feature story Urban Rain.

Gardens in the sky

Image of the Day Land. Urban Heat Island: Atlanta, Georgia. At the time of publication, it represented the best available science. Urban heat islands may be priority areas for public health education and preparedness for extreme heat.

Creating the Index

Along with other environmental studies, such as CalEnviroScreen , this research can also help identify and prioritize areas across the state for mitigation. Governments may be interested in the maps of individual cities as a tool for prioritizing local activities such as urban greening and projects focused on cooler roofs and pavements. Over time, it may be possible to track changes in the index that result from climate change or mitigation efforts.

Understanding the Urban Heat Island Index.