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Vascular dementia is also an important type of dementia and is caused by atherosclerosis in the brain's blood vessels. Dementia is not a natural consequence of aging. It is always due to illness or injury in the brain tissue, although old age is the strongest risk factor for developing dementia. The majority of older people retain their cognitive functions and do not become demented. However, as a result of increasing life expectancy, the number of elderly will rise in the future and the amount of people with dementia is likely to follow this trend.

The analysis, which includes 24 studies, finds a significant association between physical activity and a reduced risk of 0. Despite the strong evidence that physical exercise may lower the risk of dementia, there are relatively few studies allowing to conclude on the effects of exercise in patients with a diagnosis of dementia. Sixteen trials with participants met the inclusion criteria. Only two trials included participants living at home. It was further found that the burden experienced by informal caregivers providing care in the home may be reduced when they supervise the participation of the family member with dementia in an exercise program.

The training group improved their gate function, but the opposite was true in the control group. Most older persons with dementia living in nursing homes spend their days without engaging in much physical activity.

A systematic review therefore looked at the influence that the environment has on their level of physical activity. Studies have also been undertaken examining whether physical activity affects the cognitive function of elderly people without dementia. The training had a significant, albeit modest, positive effect on the participant's cognitive function. Overall, there is some evidence that physical activity prevents dementia but only modest evidence for an effect of physical activity on cognitive function in people who have already developed dementia.

Maria L. Müller - Google Scholar Citations

Physical training has a positive effect on physical function, for example, the gait function of people with dementia. Theoretically, physical activity can prevent dementia due to an effect on the hippocampus. The effect of exercise on the hippocampus is probably mediated by BDNF, which is a growth factor in the hippocampus.

A randomized controlled trial with older adults showed that aerobic exercise training increases the size of the anterior hippocampus, leading to improvements in spatial memory. Furthermore, increased hippocampal volume is associated with greater serum levels of BDNF.

Breathing and how it can affect your health

Inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease Pedersen, Training needs to be individualized and supervised, as well as designed to maintain gait, balance, and functional ability. Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease and affects approximately seven million people globally. Typical symptoms are tremors, rigidity, and slow movement as well as problems with fine motor skills. Later symptoms a stooped posture, a slow, shuffling gait with stiff arms, and problems of balance.

Speech can become monotonous and toneless and patients may develop problems with swallowing.

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Symptoms affecting the autonomic nervous system generally take the form of constipation, incontinence, and in some cases erectile dysfunction and orthostatic hypotension. Patients also experience insomnia and depression at an advanced stage of the disease, with some patients experiencing memory problems and a lack of concentration and initiative.

The analysis included eight trials involving participants. Treadmill training was found to increase walking speed, stride, and walking distance. Overall, it was established that the training regime had a significant impact on walking speed. The training had a sustainable effect, especially on gait function. Another study compared group boxing training to traditional group exercise on function and quality of life in persons with Parkinson's disease. Boxing training included: stretching, boxing e. Traditional exercise included: stretching, resistance exercises, aerobic training, and balance activities.

The traditional exercise group demonstrated greater gains in balance confidence than the boxing group. Only the boxing group demonstrated significant improvements in gait velocity and endurance over time. The AE program using a treadmill, bike, or elliptical trainer was supervised by an exercise trainer. Of the participants, Interaction history revealed that the participants logged in for a mean SD of Training should be tailored to the individual and depends on the stage of the disease.

Patients should ideally undergo an exercise program that involves fitness and strength training as well as balance and coordination training. Auditory rhythm stimulation may be tried with a view to stimulating increased walking speed. Patients should be encouraged to try balance and muscle strength training. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease normally resulting in gradual, progressive disability. The number of people with multiple sclerosis is 2—2. The disease occurs more often in women than in men and it usually develops between the ages of 20— It is characterized by recurring neurological deficits attacks in different parts of the nervous system caused by local demyelination processes plaques.

Over time, the symptoms spread to different parts of the body.

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Individual attacks can manifest themselves in highly different ways, but common symptoms are paresis, disturbed sensation, ataxia, loss of autonomic functions, weakness, and fatigue. It has been suggested that physical exercise might have the potential to have an impact on multiple sclerosis pathology and thereby slow down the disease process in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Sixteen studies were included. The authors found strong evidence regarding the beneficial effect of progressive resistance training on muscle strength. The physical training involved physiotherapy both with and without equipment and different forms of physical training on land and in water. The training group increased maximum oxygen uptake VO 2max , improved leg and arm muscle strength, improved bladder function, and showed fewer depression and fatigue symptoms. There was also an improvement in lipid profile. Deficits lead to paresis, which leads to restricted motor function.

This in turn limits the possibilities for physical activity, leading to deterioration in physical fitness.

The aim of the training program is to recover muscle strength, coordination, and fitness. The training program needs to be individualized and depends on the stage of the disease. Initially the program should be supervised, with a combination of fitness and muscle training recommended in early stages and in the case of patients with light to moderate deficits. Ergotherapy is important at all stages of the disease.

As a number of patients suffer from temperature sensitivity, it is important to make sure they do not become chilled during training. No general contraindications. Ten articles were included in the final analysis and pooled hazard ratios were assessed for each comparison group i. The importance of physical activity for weight loss assessed by body weight or BMI is controversial, but physical training leads to a reduction in fat mass and abdominal obesity, in addition to counteracting loss of muscle mass during dieting.

Strong evidence exists that physical activity is important for preventing weight gain in general, as well as for maintaining body weight after weight loss. A prerequisite was that the physical training had to be quantifiable. The physical training intervention mainly consisted of walking, using an exercise bike, jogging, and weight training. All of the studies showed that physical exercise induced a slight reduction in body weight and BMI. The combination of exercise and diet resulted in an average greater weight loss difference: 1.

The Cochrane Review showed that physical training for overweight and obese adults had positive effects on both body weight and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. After 2. The patients who exercised had a weight gain of 4. A literature review of 26 articles assessed the independent effects of normal weight vs obesity: fit vs unfit and physically active vs physically inactive.

The literature review, however, could not confirm results from other studies that showed that a high level of physical activity gave the same protection as being physically fit. Individuals with a high BMI and a high level of physical activity had a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease than those with a normal BMI and low level of physical activity.

Three J.P. Muller exercise books, My Breathing System, My System and The Fresh Air Book

There are many possible explanations as to why physical fitness and not a high level of physical activity protect against the serious health consequences of overweight and obesity. Another possible explanation is that primarily physical activity of high intensity leads to improved fitness and thereby protection against diseases associated with obesity Fogelholm, Obesity is often associated with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance.

The effect of physical training on these risk markers is described separately on pages 14, 16 and Physical training increases energy expenditure and induces lipolysis, whereupon the fat mass is reduced, if the energy expended is not compensated for with an increase in caloric intake. For weight loss, a large volume of moderately intense aerobic exercise is recommended, preferably in combination with strength training.

Many overweight and obese patients have, however, concomitant hypertension or symptomatic ischemic cardiovascular disease.