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So for the uninitiated, there are a few golden rules.

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DO pee before you get in the water. Worth it. DO pee early in the session. Give the sea a chance to wash away your own special marinade. DO pee in the pack. Sharing with the crew will reduce your percentages of meeting the man in the grey suit. DO pee freely.

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This is especially important if it happens to one of your mates. The shower at the beach is different from the one in your house. The communication of aggressive tendencies can be achieved by transmitting visual, acoustical and chemical information. In this context chemical communication received less attention than other modalities thus far.

We studied the importance of chemical information released via urine during agonistic encounters in the cooperatively breeding cichlid N. Using dye injections, we measured urination patterns as well as the aggressive and submissive behaviours of two contestants. We show that N.

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Furthermore, we show that appropriate agonistic responses appear to be dependent on the availability of such chemical information. Thus, our results suggest that chemical communication plays a crucial role in multimodal communication of aggression in these fish. These findings highlight the importance of chemical communication during agonistic encounters in general, even if other signals are more obvious to the human observer.

Valentina Balzarini provided drawings of fish. We are grateful to Manon Schweinfurth, Andrea Pilastro and two anonymous referees for thoughtful comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript.

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Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology February , Cite as. To pee or not to pee: urine signals mediate aggressive interactions in the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher. Original Article First Online: 18 January Abstract The communication of aggressive propensity is an important component of agonistic interactions.

To pee or not to pee?

Significance statement The communication of aggressive tendencies can be achieved by transmitting visual, acoustical and chemical information. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. ASAB Guidelines for the treatment of animals in behavioural research and teaching.

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Auffarth B Understanding smell—the olfactory stimulus problem. Bakker TCM Two-way selection for aggression in juvenile female and male sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus , with some notes on hormonal factors.

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Behaviour —81 CrossRef Google Scholar. Behaviour — CrossRef Google Scholar. Beeching SC Visual assessment of relative body size in a cichlid fish, the Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus.

Ethology — CrossRef Google Scholar. R package version Boyle KS, Tricas TC Discrimination of mates and intruders: visual and olfactory cues for a monogamous territorial coral reef butterflyfish. Bryant BP, Atema J Diet manipulation affects social behavior of catfish: importance of body odor. Drews C The concept and definition of dominance in animal behaviour. Springer, New York Google Scholar.

To Pee or Not to Pee – That is the Question

Engqvist L The mistreatment of covariate interaction terms in linear model analyses of behavioural and evolutionary ecology studies. Frostman P, Sherman PT Behavioral response to familiar and unfamiliar neighbors in a territorial cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher. Hand JL Resolution of social conflicts: dominance, egalitarianism, spheres of dominance, and game theory. Hasson O Cheating signals.